The 1833 Factory Act had stopped the employment of children under nine working in textile mills. Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, later the Earl of Shaftesbury, campaigned for similar protection for children in coal mines. His efforts brought about the setting up of a Royal Commission to enquire into the working conditions in coal mines, in particular its effect on women and children.
On the 4th July 1838 at Huskar pit in Silkstone Common near Barnsley, twenty six children lost their lives in one tragic accident. This increased public concern and made it become more urgent to set up the Commission. For further information, follow the pdf. provided by the National Coal Mining Museum for England below:
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